Gloss Emilian | The “stolen” manuscript of the 10th century with the first texts in Spanish and Basque claiming La Rioja from the government


the 60- Nadaa copy confiscated from the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogola during a confiscation in the Tripartite liberal era, has been kept at the Royal Academy of History for more than 150 years

There is a small manuscript in the library of a monastery built among the mountains of the Sierra de la Demanda. It is kept by the Benedictine monks who live there, as are the rest of the copies, without knowing that this is one of the most important volumes on the history of Spain. Ignorance marks history 60- Nadawhich contains apparently a few psalms in Latin which served as study materials for the pious and nobles who were educated in the holy place.

In the first two weeks of March 1821, in the middle of the liberal triumvirate, they entered Yeosu Monastery (one “below”), second in seniority to the city of San Millán de la Cogola after the city of Suso (“above”), those responsible for executing the first confiscations in the religious establishment. They confiscated manuscripts from the library of the monks to send them to Burgos by order of Joaquin Escario, the political chief of the city to which the department of La Rioja then belonged. They stayed there for 50 years, until they moved to Madrid.

the 60- Nada Discontinued in 1872 at Royal Academy of History, where they are responsible for restoring that and the rest of the copies they receive. Four Psalms in Latin, a book of smaller proportions than most of the writings issued by the monastery and of little literary interest. Those were the main features of this book. However, its pages contained more than meets the eye.

Until half a century later, although they were studied by many ancient authors, no one noticed the 160 annotations in the Romance language written between the lines of religious texts that appear in the manuscript as a summary or exegesis. Ramon Menendez Bidal, based on the text published by Manuel Gomez Moreno Spanish origins. A Linguistic Study of the Iberian Peninsula to the Eleventh Century (1926) where it is shown These small notes are consistent with the first samples written in Spanish. The importance of the copy did not stop there. It also contains the first sentences written in Basque.

Gómez Moreno Menéndez Pidal gave the first versions of some glosses which he described years earlier, in 1913, in his work From Mozarabic archeologyfrom “The Complete Evidence for the Existence of Romance [en el siglo X] There as a literary language.” This discovery was an admission that the Benedictine monks had kept in their temple, without knowing it, “the first” evidence that Old Spanish and Euskera had already been written in La Rioja from the end of the tenth century or the beginning of the twentieth century to the eleventh century .

On the other hand, the Autonomy of Castilla y León takes advantage of two other representations of the Romance language, Reporting by Kissos de Leon and Cartolorios de Valpuesta, which he describes as “the most primitive of the Spanish monuments”, although scholars defend San Millan’s Notes as the most relevant in form and content. A translation of the first Emilian Glosses, as these notes are known, for example, into present-day Spanish, is as follows:

“By the mediation of our Lord, without Christ, without Salvador, who shares honor and rank with the Father with the Holy Spirit forever and ever, Almighty God cause us to serve in such a way as to make us happy in his presence. Amen.”

In contrast, the first sentences were drawn up in Basque, which would be read in the current spelling of the language izioki dojo“yes”Guek aiutu ez dugu“, whose meaning is: “we caught” and “we don’t throw ourselves.” Until just over 100 years ago, no one knew. If we consider the age of the texts, the fragility of the support, and the whole context of time in that region, They were lucky to have made it todaySays Ismail Maestro, secretary of the Emilian Cultural Association of this city of only 200 inhabitants.

Jesus Lerena, one of the Augustinian Recollect monks who currently lives in the abbey, declared it a World Heritage Site in 1997, asserting that if it was not known what the manuscript contained, “they could have given it to any religious who asked for it.” to the Royal Academy of History. Enterprise keeps you in security camera That the President of La Rioja herself, Concha Andreu, of PSOE, visited her during the meeting she had with the Director of RAH, Carmen Iglesias, and with all of her technical team.

Equidistance and bienquedismo

Andrew, as his predecessors have done since La Rioja became an autonomous community, requested the release of the manuscript 60- Bliss It is returned to the area in which it was created. “Previous governments have claimed it, but it is one thing to demand and another to create a project focused on the Spanish language,” he said in an interview at La Rioja’s government headquarters. Back to Tongue Valleyan initiative developed by the CEO since February 2020 and initially inspired by Emilian Glosses.

“We have just received the head of government, Pedro Sánchez, to close the circuit,” he explains. La Rioja has already signed an agreement with the Cervantes Institute and, therefore, with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, to develop a project for which they agreed with the portfolio of Nadia Calvino A. Injection of 21 million euroswhich will be added to the 24 offered by the Autonomous Community.

Although the government of La Rioja had already raised the issue of the return of the Codex containing Glossas Emilianenses, The application has not yet been officially submitted. Before that, they have to “get everything ready”: design the room in which the copy will be displayed, in San Millan or elsewhere in the region, as well as collect all the information about the ownership and transfers of the work. , including documents held by the Royal Academy of History. Just at that moment, Concha Andrew assures, “we will file the official claim and we will get to where we have to go.” He adds that all negotiations will take place “without fanfare, in the background”.

A page from the volume “Aemilianensis 60” with touches. / see it

The Royal Academy of History guards the manuscript that came to them “in an official and irrevocable manner, regardless of the historical judgment to which they are each entitled,” the institution says in a statement sent to this newspaper. “From a historical point of view, this must be emphasized The procedures for confiscation were determined by a series of legal rulings adopted by a legitimate government and with all kinds of procedural and formal guarantees “, they justify it. But in San Millán de la Cogola the first confiscation in which the manuscripts of the convent were confiscated is seen in another way:”We do not call it “handover” but rather “confiscation” or “looting”.Says Ismail Maestro, who points out that “70 ancient manuscripts were stolen against the will of the monks and the locals who lived here.”

They got into the Royal Academy of History, as it is considered, “by accident”. Ismail Maestro and Concha Andrew recognize that “the issue of property ownership is very complex.” Secretary of the Cultural Association Emilian criticized that the majority of governments and individuals who have so far demanded a return 60- Nada “They settle at equal distances and in binary,” W They have always chosen “the diplomatic path, avoiding entering into legal claims.”. The current president of La Rioja does not rule out this path, but it is not clear who will go to court: “Since it emanates from the convent, perhaps it is the convent that should claim it…or maybe it is us.”

pending topic

“We want the manuscript back in La Rioja, although we are not going to throw others into the sea because everyone has their reasons. We will continue to request that this book be returned to its home turf“, insists friar and prior of the monastery Jesús Llerena. In San Millán de la Cogola they currently only have facsimile copies of the two most important pages of the manuscript, the ones that are shown to tourists during visits.” It would be great if they come back. It’s time for the people of La Rioja to enjoy that Glosses is the place where they were born, “says Ismael Maestro, who realizes that it is” complicated “to mitigate popular demand from the Academy, which” is behind the Ministry of Culture “.

It is a pending case that the Glossas Emilianenses are here, but it would not be a failure if they did not come”

Concha Andrew, President of La Rioja

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Concha Andrew succumbs to a situation that might repeat itself during her tenure: “If the Royal Academy of History does not release them, it does not release them“.” It is a pending case that Glossas Emilianenses are here, but it will not be a failure because they did not come. She insists that the important thing is to provide content for the origin of the Spanish language in the region.” The president does not feel that “the fact that the manuscript has not been returned is an insult to La Rioja” as an independent community, but calls: “You should ask the Royal Academy of History why you think [Aemilianensis 60] its yours “.

Already in its day San Milan recovered other looted assets, such as San Milan ivory. It was taken over during the Second Republic and brought back during the Franco regime, on San Bernabeu day—the great Logroño day—in 1944. It was claimed “in a similar way to what happens with the Emilian Glosses” today, says Maestro, who remembers her grandmother always telling her that “This event marked a before and after for the city.” As expected to happen with the manuscript of the controversy.

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